Welcome to TCP/IP Part 2

  

(Please note the differences between the OSI & the TCP/IP Reference Models.   will try to maintain certain understanding, as well as reference.)

As mentioned before the Application Layer is where the user has a direct connection to the computer by inputting data, or making requests.  This layer is also responsible for resolving the availability of communication and sufficiency of resources for data input.  The protocols associated with this layer are HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.

HTTP began as an extremely basic protocol, which permitted a client to send a simple request and to receive the hypertext file from the server. As the web has grown so has the complexity of the request, but the simplistic job of http has truly stayed the same.

In this segment we will discuss the Application layer protocols, which are: Telnet, FTP, TFTP, NFS, SMTP, LPD, X-Window, SNMP, DNS, and DHCP/BootP.  Each protocol has a different function and is used in different ways.  So, let us start…

Telnet:  This is represented as the chameleon of protocols, because its specialty is terminal emulation.  It allows a user on a remote client computer, etc., also called the Telnet client, to access the resources of another machine, the Telnet server.  It does so by creating the illusion that the Telnet server is connected to a valid Telnet client machine, but is virtual in nature.  It is able to execute and determine system statuses as well as being the causation of procedural execution.

FTP:  File Transfer Protocol is the protocol responsible for allowing us to transfer files…really big surprise, eh?  FTP is both a protocol and a program.  As a protocol it is used by applications; as a program it is used by operators to perform file tasks manually.  It teams up with Telnet to permit logging in to the FTP server and then provides for file transferring.

TFTP:  Trivial File Transfer Protocol is a stripped down, no bells, and no whistles version of FTP.  If you know exactly what you want, where it is, this is what you want.  It is fast and because it is stripped down it does not have an abundance of functions to bog it down.

NFS:  Network File System is a protocol that specializes in file sharing, allowing two different types of files to interoperate. It permits and allocates RAM on the server to transparently store another operating system based application so that it may run along side of the operating system of the server itself. (i.e., Server runs NT, Win2003, etc, will allow a portion of the RAM to store and run an application which is Unix or Linux based.)

SMTP:  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is another tough one to figure out…it aids us in our desire to stay in touch with others through email by using a spooled or queued method of mail delivery.  SMTP is used to send email and POP3 is used for receiving email.

LPD:  Line Printer Daemon protocol is used for…printer sharing.  LPD along with the Line Printer (LPR) program allows jobs to be spooled and sent to the network’s printers using TCP/IP.

X-Window:  This is designed for client/server operations; X Window defines a protocol for writing client/server applications based on a graphical user interface (GUI).  The purpose is to run a program (a client) run on one computer and permit it to be displayed through a window server on another computer.

SNMP:  Simple Network Management Protocol collects and manipulates data.  The data manipulated is valuable network information.  Data is gathered by polling devices on the network from a management station at designated intervals, which requires those devices to disclose certain information.  SNMP receives what is called a “baseline” which is a report that delimits the operations of a healthy or unhealthy network.  This protocol can be a watchdog over the network by advising of any sudden events.

DNS:  Domain Name Service resolves “hostnames”, such as www.google.com, www.yahoo.com, etc., to an internet provider (IP) address, such as 192.168.100.1.  If you type in an IP address DNS is not being used, because the software knows what to do with it and how to use it.  DNS simply makes our lives easier as users so we are not required to type in IP addresses for any specific thing we desire.

DHCP/BootP:  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol assigns IP addresses to hosts.  It creates an easier environment for both small and very large scale networks administratively.  All types of hardware can be used as a DHCP server; most home networks use their router as a DHCP server.  The difference between DHCP and BootP is that with BootP the addresses must be manually keyed in to the BootP table.  The DHCP server can provide this information:

  • IP address
  • Subnet mask
  • Domain Name
  • Default gateway routes
  • DNS
  • WINS information.

See also: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

Works Cited

Lammle, T. (2007). CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Odom, W. (2012). Official Cert Guide ICND1. Indianapolis: Cisco Press.

http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_ApplicationLayerLayer7.htm

http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_TCPIPHypertextTransferProtocolHTTP.htm

Welcome to TCP/IP Part 1

In Part 4 and Part 5 of the Internetworking series we brushed on the TCP/IP, DoD, and OSI Models that are used within internetworking communications, before going any further it would be wise to touch base on these subjects again and then carry on with the TCP/IP in more depth.

Internetworking Part 4

Now is a good time to introduce the networking reference models that permit the communications within our internetworking up through the previous sessions (Part 3).

In the beginning, most computers were only able to communicate with other computers from the same manufacturer.  In the 1970s the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was created to overcome these communications problems.  There are other models  in use such as the DoD Reference and the Cisco Hierarchical Models, which we will discuss.

First, the OSI Model.  This is a reference model, or set of guidelines, that application developers can use in the creation and implementation of applications that run on a network, which provides a  framework within which network standards can be managed.

The OSI model has 7 distinct layers, which are divided in to two groups. The upper group (top 3 layers) define how the end-to-end host applications will communicate with each other.  The bottom group (bottom 4 layers)  define how the data is to be handles and transmitted between the hosts, end-to-end.  The top group are the Application, Presentation, and Session layers; the bottom group  The following operate at all seven layers of the OSI model:  Network management stations (NMSs); web and application servers; gateways (not default gateways); and network hosts.

The upper layers:  Application layer, Presentation layer, and the Session layer furnishes a user interface, “presents” data to the application layer, and maintains data separation between different applications.

The Application Layer:  This is where you (the user) has a direct connection to the computer by inputting data, or making requests.  This layer is also responsible for resolving the availability of communication and sufficiency of resources for data input.  The protocols associated with this layer are HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.

The Presentation Layer:  As mentioned before, this layer “presents” the data to the Application layer, which is where its name originates.  It is also in control of the data translation, code formatting and conversion functions (i.e., receives generically formatted data and converst it to its original format).  The protocols associated with this layer are ASCII, EBCDIC, JPEG, GIF, and MPEG.

The Session Layer:  This layer’s operation is to create, organize, and disassemble between Presentation layer components.  In essence, this layer can open many “seesions” and will keep all of those “sessions” and their respective data separate.

Internetworking Part 5

The lower layers, or the Transport Set, are for the transportation of the segments, packets, frames, and bits.

Transport Layer (Layer 4) provides for reliable or unreliable delivery and performs error correction before retransmit.  This layer segments and reassembles data into data stream by providing end-to-end  data transport service which creates a logical connection between the sending and destination hosts.

Network Layer (Layer 3) provides for logical addressing, which the routers use for path determination.  This layer manages device addressing, tracks the location of devices on the internetwork, and determines the best path available.

Data Link Layer (Layer 2) combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames, provides access to media using MAC address, performs error detection – not correction.  This layer provides for the transmission of data and handles error notification, topology of the network, and flow control.

Physical Layer (Layer 1) moves the bits between devices, specifies wire speed, voltage, and the pin-out of cable.  Sends and receives bits, some use tones, and others can use variations of voltage or signals

Data integrity is maintained through flow control whose purpose is to govern the amount of data sent by the sender.

Connection-Oriented Communication is where the transmitting device first creates a session with its peer system through a call setup, or three-way handshake.  The three-way handshake is a series of synchronization, negotiation, synchronization, acknowledgement, connection, and finally data transfer.

 

See also: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

Works Cited

Lammle, T. (2007). CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Odom, W. (2012). Official Cert Guide ICND1. Indianapolis: Cisco Press.

Internetworking Part 9

Data Encapsulation is the process data flows through which the data in each layer of the OSI Model is wrapped (or encapsulated) in protocol information of the layer.  Each layer of the OSI Model is readable only by the same layer on the receiving host (i.e., Session-Session, Transport-Transport, Network-Network, etc.)  However, each layer the data must go through before transmission must receive and understandable header and protocol data to continue on its journey.  It is relatively simple to understand once you gain an understanding of what is happening.

Each layer communicates with its neighbor layer on the destination. Each layer uses Protocol Data Units (PDUs) to communicate and exchange information.  Protocol Data Units contain the control information attached to the data at each layer. The information is attached to the data field’s header but can also be at the end of the data field or trailer.

Each protocol creates a protocol data unit (PDU) for transmission that includes headers required by that protocol and data to be transmitted. This data becomes the service data unit (SDU) of the next layer below it. This diagram shows a layer 7 PDU consisting of a layer 7 header (“L7H”) and application data. When this is passed to layer 6, it becomes a layer 6 SDU. The layer 6 protocol prepends to it a layer 6 header (“L6H”) to create a layer 6 PDU, which is passed to layer 5. The encapsulation process continues all the way down to layer 2, which creates a layer 2 PDU—in this case shown with both a header and footer—that is converted to bits and sent at layer 1.  [Layers 7=Application, 6=Presentation, 5=Session, 4=Transport, 3=Network, 2=Data Link, and 1=Physical]

Here is an excellent video related to data encapsulation, for those of you who (like me) are visual by nature. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=3se8JizBmPg

These are the basics and this was down and dirty.  I hope it is both helpful and useful to you.

See also: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8

References:

http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_DataEncapsulationProtocolDataUnitsPDUsandServiceDa.htm

http://www.tech-faq.com/understanding-data-encapsulation.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model

Lammle, T. (2007). CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Internetworking Part 6

Flow Control ensures data integrity at the Transport Layer (Layer 4) by maintaining and allowing  users to request reliable data transport between systems.

Flow Control prevents the transmitting host from overflowing the buffers of the receiving host.  If the flow of data is not controlled it can result in lost data.  The ability to obtain reliable data transport uses a connection-oriented communications (briefly discussed in Part 5) session between the two, or more, systems and the protocols involved, which would permit the following:

  • All segments received are acknowledged to the sender upon their receipt;
  • Any segments lost or dropped, which are not acknowledged, will be retransmitted;
  • Segments are re-sequenced into their original order upon arrival at their destination;
  • Manageable data flow is maintained to avoid congestion, overloading and data loss.

The inherent purpose of flow control is to maintain a means for the receiving  host to govern the amount of data sent by the transmitting host.

 

Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5

Internetworking Part 5

In Part 4 we discussed about the top three layers (Application, Presentation, and Session), in this part we will discuss the lower 4 layers of the OSI Model (Transport, Network, Data Link, and the Physical).

The lower layers, or the Transport Set, are for the transportation of the segments, packets, frames, and bits.

Transport Layer (Layer 4) provides for reliable or unreliable delivery and performs error correction before retransmit.  This layer segments and reassembles data into data stream by providing end-to-end  data transport service which creates a logical connection between the sending and destination hosts.

Network Layer (Layer 3) provides for logical addressing, which the routers use for path determination.  This layer manages device addressing, tracks the location of devices on the internetwork, and determines the best path available.

Data Link Layer (Layer 2) combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames, provides access to media using MAC address, performs error detection – not correction.  This layer provides for the transmission of data and handles error notification, topology of the network, and flow control.

Physical Layer (Layer 1) moves the bits between devices, specifies wire speed, voltage, and the pin-out of cable.  Sends and receives bits, some use tones, and others can use variations of voltage or signals

Data integrity is maintained through flow control whose purpose is to govern the amount of data sent by the sender.

Connection-Oriented Communication is where the transmitting device first creates a session with its peer system through a call setup, or three-way handshake.  The three-way handshake is a series of synchronization, negotiation, synchronization, acknowledgement, connection, and finally data transfer.

Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4

Internetworking Part 4

Now is a good time to introduce the networking reference models that permit the communications within our internetworking up through the previous sessions (Part 3).

In the beginning, most computers were only able to communicate with other computers from the same manufacturer.  In the 1970s the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was created to overcome these communications problems.  There are other models  in use such as the DoD Reference and the Cisco Hierarchical Models, which we will discuss.

First, the OSI Model.  This is a reference model, or set of guidelines, that application developers can use in the creation and implementation of applications that run on a network, which provides a  framework within which network standards can be managed.

The OSI model has 7 distinct layers, which are divided in to two groups. The upper group (top 3 layers) define how the end-to-end host applications will communicate with each other.  The bottom group (bottom 4 layers)  define how the data is to be handles and transmitted between the hosts, end-to-end.  The top group are the Application, Presentation, and Session layers; the bottom group  The following operate at all seven layers of the OSI model:  Network management stations (NMSs); web and application servers; gateways (not default gateways); and network hosts.

The upper layers:  Application layer, Presentation layer, and the Session layer furnishes a user interface, “presents” data to the application layer, and maintains data separation between different applications.

The Application Layer:  This is where you (the user) has a direct connection to the computer by inputting data, or making requests.  This layer is also responsible for resolving the availability of communication and sufficiency of resources for data input.  The protocols associated with this layer are HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.

The Presentation Layer:  As mentioned before, this layer “presents” the data to the Application layer, which is where its name originates.  It is also in control of the data translation, code formatting and conversion functions (i.e., receives generically formatted data and converst it to its original format).  The protocols associated with this layer are ASCII, EBCDIC, JPEG, GIF, and MPEG.

The Session Layer:  This layer’s operation is to create, organize, and disassemble between Presentation layer components.  In essence, this layer can open many “seesions” and will keep all of those “sessions” and their respective data separate.

Next session will be on the lower layers.