SoshiTech -

FireFox thirteen is officially available for download on the Mozilla website tomorrow. Distinguished amid a few of the the most standout components are the home page to allow a user friendly approach and the New tab page by clicking File > New Tab.

Firfox thirteen was originally leaked to the general population early today but a spokesperson for the company had to say “That build is still under testing. We will let you know when it is officially live tomorrow.”

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Whoa! Will people ever catch a break?

SoshiTech -

Professional social networking site Linkedin has announced the possibility of millions of passwords being leaked to the public on a russian forum. Experts suggest users to change their passwords in order to protect their most private information as soon as possible.

“It would seem sensible to suggest to LinkedIn users that they change their passwords as soon as possible as a precautionary step,” said Graham Cluley of British internet security firm Sophos.

Linkedin Blog“We want to provide you with an update on this morning’s reports of stolen passwords. We can confirm that some of the passwords that were compromised correspond to LinkedIn accounts. We are continuing to investigate this situation and here is what we are pursuing as far as next steps for the compromised accounts:

Members that have accounts associated with the compromised passwords will notice that their LinkedIn account password is no longer valid.
These members will…

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Internetworking Part 9

Data Encapsulation is the process data flows through which the data in each layer of the OSI Model is wrapped (or encapsulated) in protocol information of the layer.  Each layer of the OSI Model is readable only by the same layer on the receiving host (i.e., Session-Session, Transport-Transport, Network-Network, etc.)  However, each layer the data must go through before transmission must receive and understandable header and protocol data to continue on its journey.  It is relatively simple to understand once you gain an understanding of what is happening.

Each layer communicates with its neighbor layer on the destination. Each layer uses Protocol Data Units (PDUs) to communicate and exchange information.  Protocol Data Units contain the control information attached to the data at each layer. The information is attached to the data field’s header but can also be at the end of the data field or trailer.

Each protocol creates a protocol data unit (PDU) for transmission that includes headers required by that protocol and data to be transmitted. This data becomes the service data unit (SDU) of the next layer below it. This diagram shows a layer 7 PDU consisting of a layer 7 header (“L7H”) and application data. When this is passed to layer 6, it becomes a layer 6 SDU. The layer 6 protocol prepends to it a layer 6 header (“L6H”) to create a layer 6 PDU, which is passed to layer 5. The encapsulation process continues all the way down to layer 2, which creates a layer 2 PDU—in this case shown with both a header and footer—that is converted to bits and sent at layer 1.  [Layers 7=Application, 6=Presentation, 5=Session, 4=Transport, 3=Network, 2=Data Link, and 1=Physical]

Here is an excellent video related to data encapsulation, for those of you who (like me) are visual by nature.

These are the basics and this was down and dirty.  I hope it is both helpful and useful to you.

See also: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8


Lammle, T. (2007). CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, Inc.