Internetworking Part 1

Here are some of the basics for Internetworking.  This will be, as you can tell, a multipart subject…don’t want to over do it!  This is where I begin the path to jump start my studies for the CCNA exam.  And for those of you who wish to either tag along, or add to the learning curve, you are welcome to jump on the bandwagon.

But for starters, let us get some definitions down and their associated symbols will be included, if available..

Repeater:  Is a device which takes a signal that has been degraded due to the length of cable and the cable’s resistive qualities.  The signal is cleaned up, amplified and sent on its continuing journey.

Hub:  There is pretty much only one difference between a repeater and a hub…a hub is in essence a repeater with multiple outputs.  Everything that enters from the input of the hub is sent to all outputs.

Bridge:  A device which connects two segments of a network together.  Its purpose is to send, filter, or flood any incoming data based upon certain parameters (MAC address of the incoming frame).

Switch:  Are not used to create an internetwork, but rather to make the network a bit more functional and efficient.  Responsible for multiple functions such as sending, filtering, or flooding data (frames); however, it uses the destination address of individual frames.  By default, switches break up collision domains and maintain a single broadcast domain.  In essence the switch is a multiple port smart bridge, meaning that it learns.

Router:  Create an internetwork and provide connections to other services.  Routers, by default, break up broadcast domains; thereby segmenting the network.

Broadcast Domains:  A group of devices receiving broadcast frames initiating from any device within the network group.  The broadcast is the data frame, or packet, which is transmitted to every node/host on the network segment.

Collision Domains: This is the area on the Ethernet where frames have collided and these collisions are detected.  The collision is the effect of two nodes/hosts attempting to transmit data at the same time and the collision is what causes the frame(s) to be lost in transit.  Collisions are created usually by repeaters and hubs.

In most interconnections you will probably consider this representation of your system.  Your computer (or host; A, B, C, D, E, or F) will connect through a switch, which adds to the functionality of your system within your business or home.  These switches connect to the internet, or the cloud, through a router.   Because of this inter-connectivity your host computers (A, B, & C) can talk to someone else (i.e., D, E, or F).  This is a simplistic way of how emails pas from one to another, of course keep in mind a great many steps are performed within “THE CLOUD” of the internet.  However, what you would probably see in your home would be something similar to this:

Your internet connection (or input) is at the ADSL Router which connects to your internal home wireless router.  Your primary computer which is connected to your wireless router with other computer(s) that are connected wirelessly, all of which are able to connect and transfer data to and from the internet – all without you ever knowing how.

It is all FM (Flipping Magic – I am trying to keep this as clean as possible!)  Consider the use of lights in your home or apartment…you simply flip a switch and on they go for your use and you did not need to study how the electricity or electronic parts work for it to happen.  Computers are all plug and play these days.  But at some point in time you just feel like learning something else, despite that promise never to go back to school.  hmmmmm!

I hope this was helpful, until the next exciting adventure!

Now to Internetworking Part 2, we will discuss – in general – networking topology.

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